Misinformation is not a new problem. As long as information is valuable in helping people make decisions, there will be an incentive for third parties to manipulate that information in a way beneficial to their interests. The result is misinformation, which has taken many forms over the years.

Misinformation has a variety of definitions. In this Paper, misinformation is used to mean information that is “considered incorrect based on the best available evidence from relevant experts at the time.”1 This definition does not discriminate based on intent—information is incorrect, regardless of whether its intent is to mislead2 (disinformation) or not (misinformation).3

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